|static void ||Add (util::ParamData &&d)|
| ||Adds a parameter to the hierarchy; use the PARAM_*() macros instead of this (i.e. More...|
|static std::map< char, std::string > & ||Aliases ()|
| ||Return a modifiable list of aliases that IO knows about. More...|
|static void ||ClearSettings ()|
| ||Clear all of the settings, removing all parameters and function mappings. More...|
|static T & ||GetParam (const std::string &identifier)|
| ||Get the value of type T found while parsing. More...|
|static std::string ||GetPrintableParam (const std::string &identifier)|
| ||Cast the given parameter of the given type to a short, printable std::string, for use in status messages. More...|
|static T & ||GetRawParam (const std::string &identifier)|
| ||Get the raw value of the parameter before any processing that GetParam() might normally do. More...|
|static IO & ||GetSingleton ()|
| ||Retrieve the singleton. More...|
|static bool ||HasParam (const std::string &identifier)|
| ||See if the specified flag was found while parsing. More...|
|static void ||MakeInPlaceCopy (const std::string &outputParamName, const std::string &inputParamName)|
| ||Given two (matrix) parameters, ensure that the first is an in-place copy of the second. More...|
|static std::map< std::string, util::ParamData > & ||Parameters ()|
| ||Return a modifiable list of parameters that IO knows about. More...|
|static std::string ||ProgramName ()|
| ||Get the program name as set by the BINDING_NAME() macro. More...|
|static void ||RestoreSettings (const std::string &name, const bool fatal=true)|
| ||Restore all of the parameters and function mappings of the given name, if they exist. More...|
|static void ||SetPassed (const std::string &name)|
| ||Mark a particular parameter as passed. More...|
|static void ||StoreSettings (const std::string &name)|
| ||Take all parameters and function mappings and store them, under the given name. More...|
Parses the command line for parameters and holds user-specified parameters.
The IO class is a subsystem by which parameters for machine learning methods can be specified and accessed. In conjunction with the macros PARAM_DOUBLE, PARAM_INT, PARAM_STRING, PARAM_FLAG, and others, this class aims to make user configurability of mlpack methods very easy. There are only three methods in IO that a user should need: IO::ParseCommandLine(), IO::GetParam(), and IO::HasParam() (in addition to the PARAM_*() macros).
Adding parameters to a program
- The = is optional; a space can also be used.
A parameter is specified by using one of the following macros (this is not a complete list; see core/io/io.hpp):
- PARAM_FLAG(ID, DESC, ALIAS)
- PARAM_DOUBLE(ID, DESC, ALIAS, DEF)
- PARAM_INT(ID, DESC, ALIAS, DEF)
- PARAM_STRING(ID, DESC, ALIAS, DEF)
|ID||Name of the parameter. |
|DESC||Short description of the parameter (one/two sentences). |
|ALIAS||An alias for the parameter. |
|DEF||Default value of the parameter.|
The flag (boolean) type automatically defaults to false; it is specified merely as a flag on the command line (no '=true' is required).
Here is an example of a few parameters being defined; this is for the KNN binding (methods/neighbor_search/knn_main.cpp):
PARAM_STRING_REQ("reference_file", "File containing the reference dataset.",
PARAM_STRING_REQ("distances_file", "File to output distances into.", "d");
PARAM_STRING_REQ("neighbors_file", "File to output neighbors into.", "n");
PARAM_INT_REQ("k", "Number of furthest neighbors to find.", "k");
PARAM_STRING("query_file", "File containing query points (optional).", "q",
PARAM_INT("leaf_size", "Leaf size for tree building.", "l", 20);
, "If true, O(n^2) naive mode is used for computation."
, "If true, single-tree search is used (as opposed "
"to dual-tree search.", "s");
More documentation is available on the PARAM_*() macros in the documentation for core/io/io.hpp.
Documenting the program itself
In addition to allowing documentation for each individual parameter and module, the BINDING_NAME() macro provides support for documenting the programName, BINDING_SHORT_DESC() macro provides support for documenting the shortDescription, BINDING_LONG_DESC() macro provides support for documenting the longDescription, the BINDING_EXAMPLE() macro provides support for documenting the example and the BINDING_SEE_ALSO() macro provides support for documenting the seeAlso. There should only be one instance of the BINDING_NAME(), BINDING_SHORT_DESC() and BINDING_LONG_DESC() macros and there can be multiple instance of BINDING_EXAMPLE() and BINDING_SEE_ALSO() macro. Below is an example:
"variance unfolding on the given dataset, writing a lower-dimensional "
"unfolded dataset to the given output file.");
, 5, "output"
This description should be verbose, and explain to a non-expert user what the program does and how to use it. If relevant, paper citations should be included.
Parsing the command line with IO
To have IO parse the command line at the beginning of code execution, only a call to ParseCommandLine() is necessary:
int main(int argc, char** argv)
IO provides –help and –info options which give nicely formatted documentation of each option; the documentation is generated from the DESC arguments in the PARAM_*() macros.
Getting parameters with IO
When the parameters have been defined, the next important thing is how to access them. For this, the HasParam() and GetParam() methods are used. For instance, to see if the user passed the flag (boolean) "naive":
<< "Naive has been passed!"
To get the value of a parameter, such as a string, use GetParam:
const std::string filename = IO::GetParam<:string>("filename");
- Options should only be defined in files which define
main() (that is, main bindings). If options are defined elsewhere, they may be spuriously included into other bindings and confuse users. Similarly, if your binding has options which you did not define, it is probably because the option is defined somewhere else and included in your binding.
- The COUNTER variable is used in most cases to guarantee a unique global identifier for options declared using the PARAM_*() macros. However, not all compilers have this support–most notably, gcc < 4.3. In that case, the LINE macro is used as an attempt to get a unique global identifier, but collisions are still possible, and they produce bizarre error messages. See https://github.com/mlpack/mlpack/issues/100 for more information.
Definition at line 172 of file io.hpp.